Use the electric water heater troubleshooting guide to find why an electric tank-type unit fails and not working. See why it doesn't produce hot water, there is not enough hot water (slow recovery), water is too hot, and why the reset button or breaker trips. The troubleshooting guide helps you find the answers about failures of the heating elements, thermostats, and other parts.
The article will cover problems and causes specific to electric units only. In contrast, issues such as corrosion, leaking, smelly water, and noise typical on electric and gas units are described in this troubleshooting article.
This guide will assume that the unit was sized correctly, installed professionally, per codes and manufacturer instructions.
Note: If your water heater doesn't work, needs repair, service, replacement, or professional installation, always contact a licensed plumber. Whatever you do, checking, testing, repair, even maintenance, shut off the power to the water heater by turning off the corresponding breaker on the electric panel.
Tip: Use the non-contact voltage tester to ensure that there is no power on the unit.
You can find more info about slow recovery here.
The most common reasons for breaker tripping are:
One of the main reasons why the reset button is tripping is that the tank's water is too hot. When the thermostat goes bad, it actually gets stuck in the ON position, making the heating elements heat the water non-stop, increasing the water temperature, and causing the reset button to trip.
Also, the heating element can have short and continuous heating, even after the thermostat shuts off the power, tripping the switch. A loose wire can also cause a problem whether the temperature is high or not, so as the bad reset button.
The most common solution for all these problems will require replacing the bad element or tightening the loose wires.
Note: If the reset button and circuit breaker continue tripping, a more serious problem might occur, which would require professional help.
The screw-in type of the heating element screws into the tank and has two wire terminals. This is where the element often fails. So when it fails, you could often see either black and burnt spots.
To access the heating elements and thermostats, you have to remove an access cover, fold back the insulation and remove the plastic protector.
Use the heating element wrench to remove the part.
Check out this article to learn how to test and remove a heating element.
It is essential for easier understanding and successful repair to know how the electric water heater works and the main components.
The conventional tank-type electric water heater with the storage tank uses electric heating elements (one or two) to heat the stored water inside the tank. These are immersion-type elements providing efficiency up to 99%.
The cold water that is stored inside the tank is delivered through the dip tube.
When the power is turned on, the upper element is energized, heating the water at the top of the tank.
Once the water is heated to the set temperature on the thermostat, the power is switched to the lower element, heating water until the temperature in the lower part of the tank reaches the set one on the lower thermostat.
The hot water is drawn from the top and moved through the outlet hot water extension to the tap, shower, or other application.
At the same time, the dip tube delivers the cold water to the bottom of the tank, where it mixes with the hot, lowering its temperature. As the water gets colder and the temperature goes below the set one, the bottom heating element turns on again (upper can too).
If the upper element burns out, the heater will stop operating correctly as its thermostat will never be satisfied, and the lower element won't be able to engage.
If the inside water temperature is too high (170 F), the red reset button, which is found on the upper thermostat, will trip. You can reset it by pressing it.
Every metal tank has the lining to protect it from corrosion, including the anode rod which does the same.
Each heating element has a thermostat, which allows electrical current to reach the element and heat. There are different types of elements that also come with different wattages.
At the bottom of the tank, there is a drain valve for draining and flushing the tank. At the top of the unit, the TPR valve, as the safety element, prevents and protects the unit from extreme pressure and temperature.
When talking about electric water heater troubleshooting, you will notice many different causes for one problem and the same symptoms for various issues. This is why you should troubleshoot the electric water heater by taking into account all the symptoms and causes and consult the unit's manual and codes.
Alternatively, contact a licensed plumber to help you repair the water heater.
When replacing the faulty elements, try to buy genuine parts and match the characteristics. If the inspection and maintenance are done periodically and per manufacturer's instructions, you will reduce the danger of the heater's failure and water heating problems.